Tuesday, June 2, 2009







The Revised Physical Fitness Test was conceived based from the finest books written by distinct expert in Physical fitness. The Fit kids, 1999, authored by Kenneth Cooper and The American College of Sports Medicine ( ACSM ) , are the sources of the Revised Physical Fitness Test.

Aparecio Mequi, the author of the Revised Physical Fitness Test manual, made some modifications on the different fitness test items to conform with the lifestyle of the Filipino children.

Body Mass Index (BMI), used by The Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) of the Department of Science and technology (DOST) to evaluate the nutritional status of students, enable us to know the fitness level of each students and discover his potential in sports. After knowing their strength and weakness, the teachers can determine what sports is best for their students.

Understanding Physical Fitness and its Components

Definitions of Physical Fitness

Physical Fitness is the capacity of each individual to accomplish daily task with alertness and vigor.

Components of Physical Fitness

1. Cardio-respiratory Endurance

Being able to do and continue physical activities involving the whole body

for a long period of time.

2. Muscular Strength

It is defined as the ability of the muscles to produce a person’s ability to

exert maximum force.

3. Flexibility

It is the ability of the muscles to move joints with ease through the normal

range of motion.

4. Speed

The ability to perform a movement or cover a distance in a short period of


5. Power

The ability to release maximum force very quickly. It is a combination of

speed and strength.

6. Coordination

The linking of the senses such as sight and hearing through the brain to

different parts of the body to produce smooth, quick and efficiently

controlled movement.

7. Balance

The ability to remain stable even when moving

8. Agility

The ability to move and change direction quickly.

9. Reaction time

It is the amount of time it takes to make a physical response once

you see the need to take action.


Body Mass Index (Weight)

Body Mass Index as stated earlier will help us to know the nutritional status of each student, whether they have normal weight are overweight or obese, or underweight or malnourished.

The Body Mass Index is the sum total of your height and weight.

Stature (Height)

Accuracy in getting the height of each student is very important to be able to attain the correct Body Mass Index (BMI). This can be done with the aid of a tape measure. Measure the height of the student from the floor to the top of his head.

Sitting Heights

Sitting heights is the distance from the buttocks up to your head. Your sitting height can be measured while you are sitting. Your head, neck and the trunk are being measured..

Arm Span

Arm span refers to the length of your arm from the tip of your right middle finger to the tip of your left middle finger which are extended at shoulder level against a firm wall.


Partial Curl-Ups

Partial Curl-ups is a test for abdominal muscle and good posture because the hips are properly aligned and the students does not experience back pain particularly at the lower back.

Trunk Lift

This test is performed to test the strength and flexibility of the extensor muscles of your lower back.

Right Angle Push –ups

Right angle push -ups is a test for the upper body muscles and arm strength and endurance.


Sit and Reach

Sit and reach is a test for flexibility of the hamstring muscles (Back of the thigh). The purpose of this test is to determine a healthy back and prevent hyperextension of the knee.


Mental Health

Definition and Importance of Mental Health

So many things have been said about mental health. It is the key to wholesome adjustment; It denote a sound state of mind; and it means facing and accepting the facts squarely. The United States National Committee for Mental Hygiene defines mental health as “The adjustment of individual to themselves and the world at large at maximum effectiveness, satisfaction, cheerfulness and socially considerate behavior and the ability to face accept the realities of life.”

Factors Affecting Mental Health

Mental Health aims primarily to the attainment and preservation of one’s personality and behavior. It scope goes beyond our homes, and includes the school, church, hospital and other institutions that helps develop stable emotional reactions and desirable behavioral pattern in individual of all ages.

There are three factors affecting mental health. These are
(a.) Hereditary Factors
(b.) Physical Factors; and
(c.) Socio-cultural Factors.

The Importance of Emotions to Mental Health

Emotions are feelings of love, excitement, anger and frustration. When you respond to a negative or positive situation you are experiencing emotions. These are five basic emotions: love, happiness, anger, fear and sorrow. When you are exposed to a situation, you assess it as either helpful or harmful, good or bad. Your assessment and response is called emotion.
Sometimes you are confronted w/ certain situation or problems and you respond to them in order to prevent, avoid or control emotional distress. There are many ways of attempting to resolve problems of living w/c are called coping strategies or skills. Here are some ways of coping w/ emotional problems: 1) you can try to change the situation that causing the emotional distress., 2) you can try to change the Interpretation of the situation so that it has less importance and is not so distressing, or 3) you can try to change the negative feeling w/o changing the situation or how you think about it. There are also some intelligent ways of handing your emotions. Here are some of them.

Negative Feelings and Attitude

when social and emotional needs are not met, some negative feelings and attitude are develop. These are loneliness, alienation and emptiness, mild depression and mild anxiety.

Coping w/ Emotional and Mental health

Defense mechanism are ways of deceiving yourself and others about your real conscious desires, reactions and emotions. Defense mechanism are constructive ways of dealing w/ some situations and their uses are considered normal. They are not signs emotional disorder; however, an excessive use of your defense mechanisms.

1. Rationalization
2. Sublimation
3. Regression
4. Projection
5. Repression
6. Fantasy and day-dreaming

Responsible for the Prevention of Mental Illness

Philippines Mental Health Association Inc.
The Philippines Mental Health Association (PMHA) is a private, nonprofit and nonsectarian organization located at 1s East Avenue, Quezon City. It is the only association of its kind at the level in the Philippines.

5 Basic Emotions: Love, Happiness, Anger, Fear and Sorrow

Mental Disorder/Illness

Mental Illness - is a state of being in which the person is uncomfortable meeting everyday events and relating to orders.


Psychoses are major serious forms of mental illness, whose behaviors are unpredictable. The psychotic person is characterized by a wholly unrealistic interpretation of himself and the life around him His ego has lost control over the personality. Psychotic persons may be quiet and docile at one time and hyperactive, and even violent in another. They are socially inept.

Psychoses may be classified as organic or somatogenic and functional or psychogenic

1. Organic Psychoses are those ailments caused by changes in the brain or central nervous system like senile dementia w/c is attributable to deterioration in the aged, psychoses due to disturbances of circulation, trauma, drugs and intoxication, disturbances of metabolism, growth nutrition, or endocrine dysfunctions. Psychoses due to new growth and psychoses due unknown or heredity cause buy associated w/ organic changes.
Organic psychoses mat stem from a wide variety of cause, but damage or injury to the brain or other parts of the central nervous system is always involved.

2. Functional Psychoses are serious mental disorder involving the total personality w/ no
Observable tissue damage.

If emotional stress is not given proper management. It may result to abnormal behavior such as:

a. Personality Aberrations. The behavior shown in the mild forms of maladjustment deviates from
what is normally acceptable to society.
b. Psychosomatic Disorder. (psycho physiological reaction). These are disorder pertaining to the relationship of
bodily symptoms w/c arise on the basis of psychological factors.
c. Neurosis – is a disorder of behavior of behavior due to emotional tension resulting from frustration, conflict,
depression or mark insecurity. Neurosis is classified into group.

1. Anxiety Reaction – manifest itself principally in diffused and consciously.
Experienced feelings of anxiety and apprehension for w/c there seems to be no specific
basis reality.
1.a. Neurasthenia – is a psychoneurotic condition involving chronic fatigability, chronic irritability to concentrate.
1.b. Hypochondria – is the outstanding manifest of Neurosis in all dominating preoccupation w/ the bodily processes, and complaints of specific and non specific aches and pains.
2. Hysteria – Psychoneurotic condition characterized by symptoms of organic Disorders, as blindness, deafness. Uncontrollable emotional excitement.

Impulse-Control Disorders cannot control an impulse to engage in harmful behaviors, such as explosive anger, stealing (Kleptomania), setting fires (Pyromania), gambling, or pulling out their own hair (Trichotillomania).

Anorexia Nervosa compulsive dieting associated with un realistic fears of fatness.

Anxiety Disorder Excessive apprehension worry and fear.
a. Phobias are fears of specific object, situations or activities.
b. Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder in w/c people experience sudden, intense Terror such physical symptoms as rapid heart beat and shortness breath.
c. Obsession people w/ obsessive compulsive disorder experience intrusive thoughts or Images.
d. Compulsion feel compelled to perform certain behaviors.

Mood Disorder – also called affective disorder, create disturbances in a person emotional life.
Example: Depression, Mania, and Bipolar disorder.
Symptoms: Feeling of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness, physical pain changes
In appetite, sleep patterns, and energy level.

Schizophrenia – Experience delusion of persecution-false belief that other people are plotting against
Symptoms: Delusion and hallucinations, disorganized, thinking and speech, bazaars

Cognitive Disorder
Example: Alzheimer Disease – Memory Loss.

Bulimia Nervosa (Eating Disorder) Repeatedly engaged in episode of binge eating, usually followed
by self induced vomiting or the use of laxative, diuretics or other medication to prevent weight gain.

Ways of preventing Mental Disorder/Illness
The promotions of mental health is not the sale of medical profession or its branch of psychiatry alone but of all organized social activities and institution, such as family, employment, church, the educational system, the recreational outlets and the special protective services. Different professionals and services may help such as:

1. Psychiatrist – are physician or medical doctors who have at least 3 years special training in the theories and techniques of psychoanalysis.
2. Psychoanalysis – have background in psychology. Strives to expose the ego in the treatment situation and the original emotional conflicts w/c it could not solve in the past.
3. Group Therapy – a form of psychotherapy wherein 6 to 10 person meet once or twice a week under the is direction of a train leader or therapist.
4. Psychotherapy – is a method of verbal treatment w/c has been labeled, “the talking cure” the aim of w/c is to free or to alleviate the clients mental illness.
5. Psychologist – are person whose academic training have been on the study of human behavior.
6. Psychiatric nurses – are registered nurse who have a master’s degree in an appropriate program and one and a half to two yrs. In psychiatric settings.
7. Clinical Mental Health Counselors – are person who have a master’s degree and 2 yrs. Of counseling experience.

Definition of terms:
1. Aging - Normal development factor or a continuous life-long process that begins at birth and death.
- irreversible biological changes that occur in all living things w/ the passage of time.
2. Young – ushers in the first or relatively early stages of life, growth and development.
3. Old age – The final stage of life span.
4. Gerontologist – are medical doctors who specialized in the study of aging and care of the elderly in society.

Sign of Aging

A. Physical Changes
B. Psychological or mental Changes
C. Sociological Changes

Biological and Social Theories of Aging
1. Wear and Tear theory
2. Waste product theory
3. Mutation and Auto-Immune theory
4. Free Radical theory
5. Cellular error in copying or error catastrophe theory
6. Genetic of Pacemaker theory
7. The DNA Tumor Viruses theory

Death Education

Death - the irreversible cessation of life and the imminent approach of death.
- the departure of soul from the body.
- in modern times, death has been define as occurring when the vital function case and the person stop
Thanatology – is the study of death. It is a relatively new field but much progress in the study has been made.

In death education, you are encouraged to identify inaccurate or harmful perceptions about death. You should be able to describe death-related anxieties and overcome denial of death. You have to accept the realities about death, such as:

1. every living thing must and will die
2. death is final and irreversible
3. grief responses are normal and necessary
4. certain cultural activities and rites may follow after death
5. individuals need social support during bereavement


Music of the 20th century

In this history of music and arts, every period has its own characteristic style which is associated with the society from which it originated. The period of the 19th and 20th century perceived the two world wars, and had been a period of many changes: advancement in technology, a period of many inventions such as the telephone, television, electronic light, computers, cassette tapes, synthesizers, CD players, and many others. Because of this inventions, experimentations were made in the field of music and arts.


Claude Debussy (1862-1918)

He studied with Guiraud and others at the Paris Conservatoire and as prizewinner went to Rome, though more important Impressions came from his visits to Bayreuth and from hearing Javaneese music in Paris.

Debussy and Impressionism

The Impressionist style of painting developed in the late 19th century in France. Although the Impressionist movement did not exclusively consist of French artists, it did start in France and the French painters are among the most well-known. Several earlier artistic movements, such as Classicism and Realism, influenced the Impressionist painters. In 1855, a World Fair was held in Paris, and art was given significant attention. This contributed to Paris’ reputation as the center of the art world and the place to be for aspiring painters, such as the group that would come to be known as the Impressionists.

Impressionism is a style borrowed from painting which creates an illusion of light and atmosphere by using colors side by side instead of blending them. The artist avoids realism in favor of conveying impressions.


Achille-Claude Debussy, 1862-1918, Nocturnes. Completed December 15, 1899 (at 3 a.m., according to an inscription on the manuscript), first performance October 27, 1901, in Paris. Scored for 3 flutes, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clarinets, 3 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, cymbals, snare drums, tympani, 2 harps, female chorus, and strings.

3 Shorts Composition of NOCTURNES

1. Nuages- (Clouds) Debussy pictures the sky with slow and melancholy passages of clouds. The warmth of Nuages recalls a summer love affair.

2. Fetes- (Festivals) is a restrained yet joyous celebration, the sort that generates lifelong memories without ever disturbing the neighbors.

3. Sirenes- (Sirens) builds on a simple two-note motives to seduce the listeners into Debussy’s river, just as dangerously as the mythological beauties who have lured innumerable sailors to their doom over the centuries.

The Music of Bela Bartok

Bela Bartok (1881-1945), a Hungarian, is considered a famous progressive modern musical composer, a great pianist, teacher and researcher. He was one of the leaders of Hungarian nationalism and made use of the Hungarian folk tunes in his music. Just like Stravinsky, he was one of the composers who belonged to the movement of Neo-Classicism: a return to the simplicity of Classicism and combining of modern sound with classic form.

His style is characterized by rhythms which are percussive and intricate because of the influence of the Hungarian dance patterns. He used polyrhythm, which means using two or more different rhythms played at the same time. In some of his compositions like “Six Dances in Bulgarian Rhythm, no.1”, you will notice the irregular grouping of beats.

Polytonality, which is the simultaneous combination of two or more tonalities in a composition, can also be found in Bartok’s compositions.

Antonio Molina and Impressionism

Dr. Antonio Molina (1894-1980) was one of the 20th century composers who wrote art music. He was considered the “Claude Debussy of the Philippines” because he was the first to introduce several important devices, technically characteristics of impressionism in music.

One of Molina’s popularly known, compositions is “Hatinggabi”. Another composition of Molina is “Dancing Fool”. In this composition, he made use of the whole tone scale and used it as a descriptive device.

Schoenberg and Expressionism

Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)

Austrian composer, Schoenberg’s development of the twelve-tone method of composition was a turning point in the 20th century music. He was a self taught musician.

Another philosophy of art which affected the music of the 20th century is expressionism. It is a style which seeks to express emotion with exaggerations rather than represent the physical world. The followers of the movement believe that this world is full of tension, and people are irrational, rebellious and scared to be alone.


Many of the 20th music reflects an artistic movement called expressionism, which stress intense and subjective emotion. Painters, writers, and composers explored inner feelings rather than depicting outward appearances. The expressionists rejected conventional prettiness.

Arnold Schoenberg was known for the radical sound of his music. In this song cycle, “Pierrot Lunaire”, he made use of different style of singing which is called Sprechstimme. Pierrot Lunaire calls for unusual style of vocal performance halfway between speaking and singing.


Literally it means speech voice. It is a manner of performing a song which sounds half-sung and half-spoken.


is identified, by the time signature, a fractional symbol in which the numerator specifies the number of beats per bar, and the denominator specifies the relative note value assigned to one beat.

Syncopation (Accent)

the suppression of an expected rhythmic accent by the continuation of an accented tone that begins just before it.

The Music of Stravinsky

Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)

A Russian composer, later of French (1934) and American nationality. Stravinsky was regarded as the world’s greatest composer. His once revolutionary works were modern classics.

Like Debussy and Schoenberg, Stravinsky a composer from Russia, was also one of the 20th century composers who established new trends in music, instead of just using the new trends in his music, he combined the traditional and modern trends.

Electronic Music

Music that requires knowledge or use of electronic devices to produce or manipulate sounds during its composition and performances.

With the advancement in technology, many composers are experimenting new sound sources such as electronic, environmental and other non-tonal sound. Traditional instruments are used but in different way. Even computers, cassette tape recorders, and synthesizers are used.

Concrete Music

Music created by reworking natural sounds recorded on discs or tapes.

Filipino Contemporary Composer

Nicanor Abelardo (1893-1934)- Our foremost Kundiman composer also showed the elements of modernism in his music. This is heard in his “Cinderella Overture” and “Sinfonietta for Strings”

Dr. Lucrecia Kasilag (1918-)- Neo-classicist. The music of Kasilag is unique in which she was able to combine the music of the east and west. This is shown in her Tocatta (1958) were she made used of the piano, clarinet, oboe kulintang and turiray. The Kuiliontang is very prominent in her “Concert Divertisement”.

Dr. Jose Maceda (1917-)- is the pioneer and exponent of avant-garde music in our country. When he was in France, he joined the Music Concrete movement. An example of his work is “Ugnayan”(1974). Most of Maceda’s composition make use of a large number of people and the environment.

Dr.Ramon Santos (1941-)- Another way of combining western and non-western materials and structures is shown by Dr. Ramon Santos. He made use of Asian material in his new way of composing. We will hear in his composition new concept and system of composing which he learned from his studies abroad.

At present there is a group of young composers who are active in promoting this so called New Music. Some of them are Ryan Cayabyab, Chino Toledo, Laverne Dela Pena, Arlene Chongson,and Jonas Baes.

Music 20th 21st Cen.Dalagangan